Archive | Christmas Fern RSS for this section

Hiking Brinton Brook Sanctuary!


Saw Mill River Audubon Brinton Brook Sanctuary

Saw Mill River Audubon Brinton Brook Sanctuary

Welcome to Brinton Brook Sanctuary! Brinton Brook Sanctuary, located in Croton-on -Hudson, is managed by the Saw Mill River Audubon and is its largest sanctuary at 156 acres.  The preserve originated as a donation of 112 acres to the National Audubon Society from Laura and Willard Brinton. In 1975, after Laura Brinton’s death, an additional 17 acres were added to the preserve. Saw Mill River Audubon gained full ownership of the preserve in 1991 from the National Audubon Society.

Brinton Brook Sanctuary provides necessary habitat for wildlife and includes over three miles of hiking trails.

Virtual Tour

Brinton Brook Trail Map

Brinton Brook Trail Map

Welcome to Brinton Brook Sanctuary! Using this trail map we will be traversing through forest, meadow, wetlands and the shoreline of the 5 acre Brinton Pond.

We find the trailhead of the 1.2 mile yellow blazed Pond Loop Trail (the longest trail found in Brinton Brook Sanctuary) both to our right and right in front of us. Let’s head straight on the Pond Loop Trail and see where it takes us. The Pond Loop Trail is marked with twenty interpretive signs and traverses through woods, a meadow and around Brinton Pond before it heads southwest back to the parking lot.

#1 Welcome to Brinton Brook Sanctuary

#1 Welcome to Brinton Brook Sanctuary

Here we come to the first of twenty interpretive signs (please note we will see and note some but not all of the interpretive signs) which welcome us to Brinton Brook and reminds us we are in a sanctuary where all life is protected.

#2 Tulip Tree

#2 Tulip Tree

Just up the trail we spot the second interpretive sign which refers to the Tulip Trees, the tallest trees found in the eastern US. Common names are Tulip Poplar or Yellow Poplar. Tulip Trees belong to the Magnolia family and are named as such due to its tulip shaped leaves and flower which blooms around late May and early June each year. Due to the height of the trees we generally only spot the flowers once they have fallen. Since we are in early fall we missed the flowers this year. But there is always next spring!

#3 Black Locust

#3 Black Locust

The third sign we come across has to with Black Locust trees which are found all around us in this section. A member of the Pea Family, Black Locust trees are native to the southeast of the United States and are considered to be an invasive plant elsewhere due to its ability to monopolize where it has established. In May, Black Locust produces extremely sweet smelling cluster of flowers. Mature Black Locust tree trucks are deeply furrowed and its roots help fix nitrogen levels in the soil.

Kiosk with Signage

Kiosk with Signage

As we walk the trail has widened and we find a kiosk straight ahead which includes a trail map. Let’s head to the left to continue our hike on the Pond Loop Trail.

#4 Ecotone

#4 Ecotone

Shortly after the kiosk we come to interpretive signage #4 discussing an Ecotone. An Ecotone is an transition found between two different habitats (in this case forest and meadow). Sassafras Trees are plentiful in this area.

#5 Area of Change

#5 Area of Change

We have now officially left the forest and are standing in a managed meadow. This meadow must be constantly managed otherwise over time, due to ecological succession, this meadow would convert to forest.

#6 Two Kinds of Forests

#6 Two Kinds of Forests

Leaving the meadow behind we reenter the forest and come to interpretive signage # 6: Two Kinds of Forests which discusses Red Maple (the most common Maple tree found in Northeast America) & Northern Red Oak which is found primarily to our left on the hillside.

As we arrive at Brinton Brook we see a massive old growth Red Maple.

Old Growth Red Maple

Old Growth Red Maple

Nearby is interpretive signage #7: Pond View which discusses common wildlife found in and around Brinton Pond such as Wood Ducks.

#7 Pond View

#7 Pond View

We have now arrived at Brinton Pond. The pond, created by the impoundment of Brinton Brook (a tributary of the Hudson River) is man made and was created as an “ice pond”. During the winter chunks of ice were carved from the pond and stored (this was in an age before the modern refrigerator) for use. As we can see by the growth of plants in and around the pond, the pond is slowly becoming marshland.

Brinton Pond slowly transforming to Marshland

Brinton Pond slowly transforming to Marshland

What’s that we see on a rock? It’s a female Wood Duck and its ducklings!

Female Wood Duck and ducklings

Female Wood Duck and ducklings

Heading east we come to the next interpretive signage “The Edge of the Pond”.

#8 Edge of the Pond

#8 Edge of the Pond

The sign discusses wildlife we may see near the pond and pictures a dragonfly and a Wood Frog. As we walk we don’t see any frogs but we hear plenty of Green Frogs (which sounds a bit like a banjo) and Bullfrogs (which makes a bellowing call) announcing their presence from the pond.

Pond Dam

Pond Dam

Continuing east the trail crosses over an earthen dam of the pond.

Skunk Cabbage and Sensitive Fern

Skunk Cabbage and Sensitive Fern

And here is the next interpretive sign which discusses the wetland plants found to the left of the pond. Common wetland plants found here include Skunk Cabbage, Sensitive Fern as well as Spicebush (the most common wetland shrub found in Westchester County).

Turkey Trail Trailhead

Turkey Trail Trailhead

Just past the wetland heading north is the trailhead of the blue blazed .5 of a mile Turkey Trail which climbs to the highest elevation in the sanctuary (390 feet). Let’s stretch our legs and take this trail.

TurkeyTrail (no understory)

TurkeyTrail (no understory)

As we climb through the forest notice that there is little to no understory. The culprit is an overabundance of White-Tailed Deer. With no natural predators to control the herd, the deer population in the eastern United States has exploded in recent decades. All these hungry deer feed on saplings and native shrubs displacing them and give many non-native shrubs (such as Japanese Barberry which deer do not eat) a competitive advantage.

White-Tailed Deer Running

White-Tailed Deer Running

What’s that blur to our right? A White-Tailed Deer which must have heard us discussing it is running away with its tail up high.

Turkey Trail Con-Ed Powerlines

Turkey Trail Con-Ed Powerlines

As we head east there is an abrupt end to the hardwood forest as we come to to a meadow near Con Edison power lines. We are now at the highest elevation in Brinton Brook at 360 feet.

Coyote Trail

Coyote Trail

As we continue on the Turkey Trail heading south the entrance to the green Blazed .4 mile Coyote trail appears to our left. Let’s go ahead and take it!

Highlands Trail (Croton Arboretum)

Highlands Trail (Croton Arboretum)

Heading southwest on the Coyote trail we pass the white blazed Highlands Trail (which has arrived here from the Croton Arboretum) which now jointly follows Coyote trail.

We have now arrived at an intersection with the Red Blazed .7 of a mile Hemlock Springs Trail which is named after the stately Eastern Hemlock tree.

Unfortunately many of the Hemlocks found in Brinton Brook Sanctuary are dead or dying due to the Woolly Adelgid, a non-native pest from Asia. The Adelgid feeds by sucking sap from Hemlock trees.  This exotic pest was accidently introduced to North America circa 1924 and is currently established in eleven states ranging from Georgia to Massachusetts. It is estimated that 50% of the geographical range of the Eastern Hemlock has been affected by the adelgid. Biological control (i.e. using adelgid predators to control infestations) has been the major emphasis of control since 1997.

As we continue to head east, the Highlands Trail exits to the nearby Hudson National Golf Club. Now the Hemlock Springs Trail heads south west and we come to the first of two Brinton Brook crossings.

There is something that looks like a small piece of gray rope on the ground…wait a minute! It’s a ring-necked snake! These snakes are normally nocturnal so we are lucky to spot one!

Ring Necked Snake

Ring Necked Snake

Leaving the ring-necked snake we pass first entrance Yellow Blazed .5 of a mile Laurel Rock Trail. Just as we pass we hear a beautiful songbird melody. And we’ve spotted the culprit! It’s a Wood Thrush! Wood Thrushes are common in mesic (moist) forests.

Wood Thrush

Wood Thrush

As we continue on we pass the 2nd entrance to Laurel Rock Trail and cross Brinton Brook.

Green Frog

Green Frog

As we cross over Brinton Brook there is a sudden splash! The culprit is a Green Frog. See him hiding? Green Frogs are common residents of streams, ponds and wetlands. We have now arrived back on the Pond Loop Trail which we left some time ago when we went to go explore the Turkey Trail.

Shagbark Hickory

Shagbark Hickory

While we missed some of the interpretive signs we will catch the remainder of the 20 signs now starting with sign#17 which discusses Shagbark Hickory the tree seen in the picture above. Shagbark Hickory is one of the most common Hickory trees found in the eastern forest. It is readily identifiable due to its peeling “shaggy” bark. Shagbark Hickory nuts are feasted upon by Eastern Gray Squirrels and Black Bears among others.

Sun Trap

Sun Trap

Continuing on our way we come to sign #18 which discussed the opening seen straight ahead as “a sun trap” which is a natural clearing in the forest where migratory birds may be spotted in the spring and fall.

#19 Feathery Ferns

#19 Feathery Ferns

Two more signs to go! Here we see sign # 19 “Feathery Ferns” which describes common ferns found in the Brinton Brook Sanctuary such as the Christmas Fern. The Christmas Fern is evergreen and is said to be named “Christmas Fern” due to its fronds resembling Christmas stockings.

#20 Trail end or beginning!

#20 Trail end or beginning!

We have now reached our last sign on the Pond Loop Trail #20 “Trail End or Beginning!”. For us it is the end of the trail and we are back at the parking lot! Whew! What a great hike! It is my hope that this virtual hike inspires you to check out Brinton Brook Sanctuary for yourself!

Click here for directions!

Feel free to Comment with Questions, Memories or Suggestions! Thank you and have fun exploring!

Hiking/Ecology Books!

1. The Nature of New York – An Environmental History of the Empire State – This work offers a sweeping environmental history of New York State

Click here for more information!

2. Eastern Deciduous Forest Ecology and Wildlife Conservation – This book is a useful tool for anyone who wants know or hopes to help one of North America’s great natural resources!

Click here for more information!

3.60 Hikes Within 60 Miles: New York City: Including northern New Jersey, southwestern Connecticut, and western Long Island – Packed with valuable tips and humorous observations, the guide prepares both novices and veterans for the outdoors. From secluded woods and sun-struck seashores, to lowland swamps and rock-strewn mountain tops, this practical guidebook contains all the information needed to have many great hikes in and around New York City.

Click here for more information!

4. Take a Hike New York City: 80 Hikes within Two Hours of Manhattan – In Moon Take a Hike New York City, award-winning writer Skip Card shows you the best hikes in and around The Big Apple—all within two hours of the city.

Click here for more information!

Advertisements

Hiking West Milford’s Kanouse Mountain!


Kanouse Mountain

The 2011 Pequannock River Coalition Fall Hike took place in West Milford’s Kanouse Mountain located in the Newark Watershed lands. The mountain is part of West Milford’s baker’s dozen-a series of mountains you can hike in West Milford.

Attendees of 2011 PRC Fall Hike near trail entrance off Route 23

The 1,100 foot Kanouse Mountain is located off of Route 23 North near Echo Lake Road in the Newfoundland section of West Milford. Dense woodlands surround the mountain to the north, Echo Lake is to the north east, Kanouse Brook is to the west, the Echo Lake Channel is to the east and Route 23 is to the south and southeast.

Kanouse Brook Tributary

Kanouse Brook has a naturally regenerating trout population and drains into the Pequannock River.

Attendees of the hike parked off of Old Route 23 near the NJ Transit Park & Ride and walked to the entrance of the trail off of Route 23 North near the entering Newfoundland sign.

Entering Newfoundland

The hike took place on unmarked wood roads starting in a northeast direction to the summit of Kanouse Mountain where a large star, American flag and outstanding views were present.

Star on top Kanouse Mountain

US Flag on top of Kanouse Mountain

View of Charlottesburg Reservoir from top of Kanouse Mountain

Views of Route 23

View of Copperas Mountain (Foreground) & Green Pond Mountain (Background)

Charlottesburg Reservoir was formed from the impoundment of the Pequannock River which is given C1 water classification. The C1 classification is used to indicate that the river is relatively unspoiled in comparison to other rivers in NJ.

As with all Pequannock River Coalition Hikes, Ross Kusher (the executive director of PRC) discussed different points of interest along the hike including ecology and geology. This interesting information makes a hike much more than a physical journey. The information provided by Ross’s expertise boosts the strength of your mind as you learn new aspects of your surroundings.

Fall Colors

The geology of Kanouse Mountain and the surrounding highlands is estimated to be between 400-435 million years old and thought to be from the Silurian Period of the Paleozoic Era. Past glacier activity courtesy of the Wisconsin Glacier is evident by gentle slopes on the north side of the mountain and a sudden drop on the south side.  As the Wisconsin glacier moved through the area 10,000 years ago it pushed rocks and carved out hillsides creating this phenomenon present throughout the highlands region.

Small trace amounts of copper have been found alongside the much more abundant iron in the highlands region. It is said that nearby Copperas Mountain was named so because of the copper that was once taken from it.

Coyote Footprint

Occasionally the group came across muddy areas when the trail crossed through wetlands. These muddy spots are prime spots to look for animal prints. Ross pointed out this Eastern Coyote print found in the picture above.

Wood Frog

The group found this Wood Frog near the trail. Though hard to tell from this photo, wood frogs generally look like they have a robber’s mask on due to the dark patch which extends backward from their eye. These frogs are often found in moist wooded areas.

American Chestnut Leaf

American Chestnut saplings were found periodically in the forest. Once a dominant tree in the forest canopy, the Chestnut blight has reduced the tree to the shrub layer. Once the American Chestnut reaches about twenty feet or so the blight strikes and kills it. The tree may die, but the root structure is still alive and sends up new sprouts. The American Chestnut Foundation is working to defeat the blight and restore its former footprint.

Other flora found includes these among others:

Northern Red Oak

Shagbark Hickory

Christmas Fern

Chestnut Oak

Ground Pine

Ross explained that Black Bears love the fruits of Shadbush. He once tasted the berries and compared them to wet cardboard. White Oak Ross said was cherished by wildlife for its sweet acorns.

The hike was an estimated six miles and went in a loop fashion so that attendees came out the same way the came in.  What a great fall hike!

The Pequannock River Coalition holds three hikes a year (Fall, Winter and Spring). They are worth checking out!

Remember, to hike in the Newark Watershed land a permit is required. For more information on  obtaining a Newark watershed permit click here.

Feel free to e-mail NJUrbanForest at NJUrbanForest@gmail.com with any comments, memories or suggestion! Thank you and have fun exploring!

Ringwood’s Jerry Wyckoff Natural Preserve!


The Jerry Wyckoff Natural Preserve

The Jerry Wyckoff Natural Preserve is a 7.18 green acres woodland located in the Borough of Ringwood NJ.  The preserve is located on Fieldstone Drive off of Skyline Drive. It is named after the first chair of the Ringwood Environmental Commission. The Northgate Park housing development and Fieldstone Drive sit to the north of the preserve, Skyline Drive sits to the west and south of the preserve and High Mountain Brook flows to the east. High Mountain Brook is a fresh water trout production stream with a C1 classification which is one of the highest classifications given to a stream in the state of NJ.  Its headwaters are formed from the artificially created 4 acre Brushwood Pond which contains Bass, Catfish and other aquatic life and flows in a south west direction until it terminates in the 39+ acre artificially created Skyline Lakes.

High Mountain Brook

Part of the purpose of the preserve is to maintain the rural character of Ringwood. The 7.18 acre site was previously threatened with development by the name of Bald Eagle Suites . Bald Eagle Suites would have contained the largest buildings in Ringwood. The development would have consisted of four four story high buildings containing a total of 100 units of assisted living high density housing.  The North Jersey District Water Supply Commission which manages the nearby Wanaque Reservoir, opposed the development. NJDWS believed that runoff from the development would contaminate local reservoir feeding streams.

Jerry Wyckoff Natural Preserve Woodland

The development would have disturbed nearly 96% of the 7.18 acres by essentially blowing off the top of the mountain and moving 20 thousand cubic yards of soil for the construction of an entrance road and sewage treatment fields.  The site would have been stripped of trees and several large retaining walls would have been in place. Thanks to the combined efforts of Skylands Clean and the Ringwood Zoning Board, the development was denied and the 7.18 acres was purchase from the developer by Ringwood  for $600,000 on March 16, 2007.  Green Acres provided $300,000, Passaic County Open Space provided $250,000 and the municipal OS Trust provided $50,000.The preserve is the first open space initiative led exclusively by Ringwood.

Trail

The Jerry Wyckoff Nature Trail

Jerry Wyckoff Nature Preserve Trail Map

The estimated .27 of a mile orange blazed trail entrance is found off of Fieldstone Drive just north of the entrance to Stop and Shop. The trail was created and blazed by a local boy scout troup. No map is needed for this out and back trail. The total trail is an estimate .54 of a mile. Orange ribbons were found on many trees extending near the end of the trail during my last visit. This may indicate a longer planned trail for the future.

orange blazed trail

The trail provides many scenic viewpoints of nearby highlands and the Wanaque Reservoir (especially when the leaves are gone from the trees!)

Scenic View

The trail terminates at a glacial erratic.

Flora found along the trail include Christmas Fern, Sweet Fern, White, Chestnut and Red Oak, American Beech and Red Maple among others. I spotted this awesome little Eastern Chipmunk during a warmer month visit:

Eastern Chipmunk

The Jerry Wyckoff Natural Preserve is located at the entrance to the center of town (Skyline Drive) from Route 287 (Exit 57) off of Fieldstone Drive. Parking is available in the nearby Stop and Shop.

The Jerry Wyckoff Natural Preserve

Feel free to e-mail NJUrbanForest at NJUrbanForest@gmail.com with any comments, memories or suggestion! Thank you and have fun exploring!

Wayne’s Dave Waks Memorial Park (formerly Barbour Pond)!


Dave Waks Memorial Park

Dave Wak’s Memorial Park

Dave Waks Memorial Park (formerly known as Barbour Pond Park) is located in the township of Wayne, NJ. It was renamed Dave Waks Memorial Park as a tribute to a former mayor of Wayne who passed away in 2007. At 103 acres, it is Wayne’s largest developed park. There’s a playground, 3 lighted softball fields, 1 lighted baseball field, three lighted soccer fields, a model airplane flying area and a half mile paved walking path around the fields. The centerpiece of the park is Barbour Pond which features a 1.96 mile hiking trail which encircles the pond.

Barbour Pond

Barbour Pond was created by impounding part of the 8.9 mile Preakness (Singnac) Brook via the Barbour Pond dam. The brook is a tributary of the Passaic River. It’s watershed is located almost entirely in Wayne. The headwaters, located in the nearby High Mountain Nature Preserve, are considered to be trout production and are classified as C1. C1is one of the highest classifications given to a stream in the state of NJ.  Preakness Brook enters Barbour Pond from Valley Road , where it ventures through (along with a tributary stream) a recently protected 17 acre woodland. Preakness Brook from Barbour Pond to its confluence with the Passaic River is non trout production and is considered impaired. Impairments include fecal coliform bacteria and habitat decline which are indicated by an increase in pollution-tolerant macro invertebrate species. Non-point source pollution is thought to be the culprit.  In 2005, William Paterson University was granted $408,586 to collect and access water quality data along the length of the stream. The purpose of the study was to reduce fecal coliform, restore macro invertebrate health and protect the C1 headwaters segment.

Preakness Brook

For more information on the streams that flow in your backyard check out the Pocketguide to Eastern Streams. This wonderful field guide covers common plants and animals found in a stream ecosystem. Click here for more information!

Ok, back to the trail! Access to the Barbour Pond trail may be obtained off the half mile paved walking path, off of Valley Road near Barbour Pond dam, or near the model airplane area. Entrance areas are marked by a wooden pole.

Entrance to the Barbour Pond trail from the paved walking path

The trail is mostly level and pleasant. There is a serene crossing over Preakness Brook and many beautiful views of Barbour Pond.

Mallards & Canadian Geese on Barbour Pond

Barbour Pond and the surrounding woodland provide much needed habitat for many animals and especially birds. I’ve spotted the below during my ventures:

Black-Capped Chickadee

Mourning Dove

Downy Woodpecker

Three Killdeer Birds right outside Barbour Pond

Ring-Necked Ducks on Barbour Pond

Bufflehead & Ring Neck Ducks

Male Yellow Warbler

Male Yellow Warbler

Eastern Cottontail

Eastern Cottontail

The trail contains varied flora. Flora includes:

  • Red Maple
  • Black Birch & Yellow Birch
  • American Beech
  • Red Cedar
  • Christmas Fern

    Red Cedar

    Christmas Fern

    Check out Plant Communities of New Jersey.

    NJ’s geology, topography and soil, climate, plant-plant and plant-animal relationships, and the human impact on the environment are all discussed in great detail. Twelve plant habitats are described and the authors were good enough to put in examples of where to visit!

    Click here for more information!

    While exploring around the pond I found some interesting graffiti found on one of the wood post and several trees.

  • Protect Nature

    Directions:

    Take US 80 west to exit 55B, for Union Boulevard north, Totowa. Within a short drive turn left on Crews Road. At the stop sign, go straight which connect the driver to Totowa Road. Turn right at the light after passing the Dey Mansion in Preakness Valley Park. Then take the next right for Valley Road. Pass through the intersection with Hamburg Turnpike. Take the first left turn (Barbour Pond Drive) and go .3 of a mile to the end of the road for the entrance of the park.

    Dave Waks Memorial Park (formely Barbour Pond Park)

    Feel free to e-mail NJUrbanForest at NJUrbanForest@gmail.com with any comments, memories or suggestion! Thank you and have fun exploring!

%d bloggers like this: